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Cytoimmunotherapy Group Profile > Cytoimmunotherapy

7. Cytoimmunotherapy

In the cell immunotherapy, the monocytes or stem cells are extracted and collected from the body of a tumor patient, and then transformed into immunoreactive cells (e.g. NK, DC and CIK cells) through the in vitro separation, induction, culturing and additional antigenic stimulation; and after the accumulation to an effective amount and the strengthening of target identifying function, such immunoreactive cells are transfused back to the body of this patient, so as to break the immune tolerance of body and eliminate the cancerated or aberrant cells.
Action mechanism of DC immunotherapy
         DC是指树突状细胞(Dentritic cells, DC),是体内功能最强的抗原提呈细胞。能够识别和处理外来抗原如各种病原微生物、以及体内抗原如突变或衰老的细胞,把抗原信息传递给T细胞,激发和调动机体免疫应答,从而清除抗原物质,维持机体内稳态的平衡。有学者形象称其为体内的“警犬”,无时无刻都在发挥其“免疫监视”功能,保护机体的稳定。
Dentritic cell (DC) is the antigen presenting cell of strongest function in body. It can identify and treat various exogenous antigens (e.g. pathogenic microorganisms and in vivo antigens (e.g. mutant or aged cells) and then transmit the antigenic information to T cells for activating and mobilizing the immune response of body, so as to eliminate the antigenic substances and maintain the stable balance in body. Just like a police dog in body as the metaphor of a certain scholar, DC cells monitor the immune system of body all the time, so as to guarantee the internal stability of body.
The tumor is a disease caused by the abnormal proliferation of cells due to their gene mutation. In the normal body, the immune system can identify/kill the mutant cells through the cytoimmunotherapeutic mechanism, and then eliminate them before the transformation into tumor cells. However, in the tumor patients, there is a hypofunction of immune identification (especially the DC identification and antigen presenting) and even DC cells can not be identified sometimes, so that the tumor cells are not eliminated through the immune systems. In the DC immunotherapy, the DC cells of a patient are amplified to an effective amount through in vitro induction and culturing and also activated through the tumor antigen to restore their ability of identifying/treating the mutant antigens; then these activated DC cells are transfused back to the body of this patient to mobilize the body immune system for tumor elimination, so as to greatly improve the anti-tumor ability of body.
Action mechanism of CIK immunotherapy
         CIK细胞是细胞因子诱导的杀伤细胞(cytokine induced cells,CIK),在体外用多种细胞因子共同培养一段时间后获得的一群异质细胞。CIK细胞具有增殖速度快、杀瘤活性高、杀瘤谱广及非MHC限制性等优点,能自动识别、定向杀灭肿瘤细胞、清除病灶。
Cytokine induced killer cells (CIK) is a group of heterocysts obtained after the in vitro joint culturing of several cytokines for a certain time. CIK cells possess various advantages, e.g. fast proliferation, high tumoricidal activity, broad tumoricidal spectrum and no MHC limitation. CIK cells can automatically identify the tumor cells, and then specifically kill them and eliminate the foci.
        CIK细胞表面标志鉴定为其NK-T细胞,既具有NK细胞的非特异性杀伤效果,又具有T细胞的特异性杀伤效能。进入机体,可以释放IL-2,IL-6,IFN-γ, TNF等多种细胞因子,诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡;同时释放穿孔素、Fas等,直接杀伤肿瘤细胞。
As the surface marker of CIK cells, NK-T cells can not only kill the tumor cells in a non-specific way like NK cells, but also kill them in a specific way like T cells. After the transfusion into body, NK-T cells can release various cytokines (e.g. IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF) to induce the apoptosis of tumor cells, and also release some substances (e.g. porforin and Fas) to directly kill the tumor cells.
The cytoimmunotherapy possesses the following advantages for tumor treatment:
(1) As a systemic treatment, it can strengthen and mobilize the immune function of whole body (but not of a local part). 
(2) As an invasive treatment, it does not damage the normal cells or internal organs, so as to effectively improve the efficacy of radiotherapy or chemotherapy. 
(3) With a broad tumoricidal spectrum, it can completely eliminate the tumor cells out of body and effectively restrain the recurrence/metastasis of tumors. 
(4) At the combination with TCM medicines, it can consolidate the essence and cultivate the primordial qi to overall upgrade the function of various organs, increase the immunity of body, improve the survival quality of tumor patients, and prolong their life.


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